To improve soil health and take part in combating climate change, farmers in Finland are testing different advanced farming practices. These practices include adding organic matter like manure or compost to soil, shifting cultivation to favor crops that allocate more carbon to the soil, and using off-season cover crops. The mixtures including different grass species help to increase the diversity of the cultivated grass fields.
Different carbon farming practices are tested side by side with control plots at the Carbon Action farms. Each practice is tested at three to five farms to get experience from different farmers, soil types and locations.
Cover crops / deep-rooted plants: crops planted to manage soil erosion, fertility, quality, water cycle, weeds, pests and biodiversity, deep-rooted plants to transport carbon to deeper soil layers
Organic soil amendments: a material such as compost, wood pulp and ramial wood chips, that aids plant growth indirectly by improving the condition of the soil
Subsoiling: a method to turn, break, or stir the soil to improve growth in plots where soil compaction is a problem
Ley farming: the growing of grass or legumes in rotation with grain or crops as a soil conservation measure
Adaptive grazing: improved grazing practices (short grazing, long rest) to improve soil structure and health